Schematic Arrangement of Hydroelectric Power Plant: Introduction

A hydroelectric power plant uses the potential energy of flowing water to transform it into mechanical energy, which is then converted into electrical energy through the use of a generator.

Water is the fuel of a hydroelectric power plant. So, water is the chief requirement for a hydroelectric power plant, and for this reason, we require a schematic arrangement of the power plant. This schematic arrangement of the hydroelectric power plant will portray a basic layout of the plant and will also ensure the availability of water in sufficient quantity, with the required head.

Here we will discuss the basics of the schematic arrangement of a hydroelectric power plant.


The basic schematic of a hydroelectric power plant is shown below.

Schematic Arrangement of Hydroelectric Power Plant

The schematic arrangement of the plant consists of the following structures.

A reservoir formed by constructing a dam. Reservoirs are constructed in order to ensure the availability of water through the season at a sufficient potential head. An intake structure is provided in the dam in order to take the water from the reservoir to the evolving house.

Valve house consists of Sluice valve. These valves are provided in order to control the flow of water to the powerhouse of the power station.

The surge tank ensures the better regulation of water pressure in the penstock.

A large diameter pipe made up of steel or reinforced concrete called a penstock. Penstock comes in application in order to carry the water from the valve house to the water turbine present in the power station.

The powerhouse or power station accommodates the water turbine and generator in order to converter the mechanical energy into electrical energy. The power station also accommodates the necessary switch gears for the protection, control, and transmission of electrical energy.

Tailrace is provided in order to discharge the water back into the water stream or river after the water has done its useful work in the turbine.

Elements of Hydroelectric Power Plant

Following are the elements of a hydroelectric power plant.

  1. Reservoir
  2. Dam
  3. Forebay
  4. Spillway
  5. Intake
  6. Surge Tank
  7. Penstock
  8. Valves, gates
  9. Trash Racks
  10. Tailrace
  11. Draft Tubes