In case of factory lighting, the illumination should be adequate enough on the working plane. The distribution of light should also be good. Simple and easy cleaned fittings should be employed. The lighting should be made uniform and glare less as far as possible.
Types of Factory Lighting
The usual scheme of lighting in factory is to mount a number of lights or lamps to a sufficient height so that uniform distribution of light over the working plane is obtained. It provides good and efficient lighting. Main lighting with sufficient side lighting are used in case of large machine shops using travelling cranes to provide additional and sufficient illumination on the vertical plane.
For better coefficient of utilization factor, the walls and ceilings are white painted.
In factories fair and sufficient amount of illumination is required for some purposes like processing materials, looming textile. For this sort of works, local lighting is employed. Here, adjustable table fittings attached to the machine or benches are used to provide local lighting. Local lighting could produces hard shadows and unnecessary glares. So, local lighting should not be employed alone as it may cause fatigue to eyes.
Emergency lighting is mainly used for following purpose:
- Internal pilot lighting required for speedy evacuation of personals after main switch is off.
- External pilot lighting provided with careful sheds leading through shelters required for evacuation of personals.
- Emergency light should be independently controlled and should be provided with auxiliary lighting from sources other than main supply unit.
Examples: Batteries, small diesel or petrol driven generators, UPS, inverters etc.
Industrial Light Fittings
For industrial or factory lighting design the fitting should be provided such that it is simple in design and could be easily cleaned. The following are the types of fittings used in industries.
The reflectors are made to accommodate lamps of ratings from 40 to 1500 Watts. These deflectors are mounted at a spacing equal to about 1.5 times their mounting height above the working plane to provide uniform illumination.
When sufficient amount of diffusing light is required, a diffusing glass screen maybe fixed across a standard deflector. Such types of fittings are used where highly polished articles are dealt wit.
A reflectors with a concentrated beams are employed where the fittings are mounted on considerable height above the working plane. In this case, flood lighting (concentrated lighting) is used instead of ordinary reflectors which would have produced too wide angle of divergence.
Enclosed Diffusing Fittings:
An oval globe completely enclosing the lamps are used for very even and diffused lighting.
Angle reflectors are used to provide illumination on a vertical plane where concentrating type reflectors are used. These reflectors may be mounted on a suitable stands or the wall.
NOTE CREDIT: ER. RAKESH GWACCHA SIR
REFERENCES: Utilization of Electric Power and Electric Traction – J.B. GUPTA
Utilisation of Electrical Power – R.K. Rajput
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